Calculating the Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases

This tool lets users calculate the damages from a given amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Users can use either:

  1. EPA’s 2023 estimates, which come from the Environmental Protection Agency’s 2023 final report and reflect the best available estimates to date. These estimates are available at discount rates of 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5%, and use the 2% discount rate for their central estimates.
  2. The IWG's 2021 interim estimates, which come from the Interagency Working Group on the Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases’ 2021 technical support document. These estimates are available at discount rates of 2.5%, 3%, and 5%, along with a high-damages calculation (95th percentile) that uses a 3% discount rate. Though these estimates were based on the best available science when they were developed, they are now largely outdated.
  3. New York's 2020 estimates, which come from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. These values are based on the Interagency Working Group’s 2021 estimates, except they apply updated discount rates of 1% and 2%. The 2% estimates are considered New York’s central estimates.

Enter your parameters above, then press Calculate

Note: If a user is interested in computing damages from greenhouse gas emissions across many years, for example from a fossil fuel project that is expected to release emissions every year for 10 years, the user should enter each year’s emissions separately, being sure to enter the correct year of emissions and amount of emissions each time, and add them up manually.

To convert emissions or energy data (like gallons of gasoline or kilowatt-hours used) to metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, use EPA's Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator.